Intelligent Lithium-ion Cells Using In-situ Sensing Technology
This work presents the next generation of in-situ energy storage sensors, whereby multiple thermal sensors and reference electrodes are used in combination with the advanced state of charge and state of health indicators. Furthermore, this work discusses and explores the key challenges of in-situ sensing and shows a practical approach for constructing intelligent cells. Thus enabling in-situ and operando thermo-electrochemical data collection during cells’ real-life operations. These instrumented cells are then used to conduct in-operando investigations of lithium battery safety by giving real-time information on the internal state of the battery. The sensing methodologies and modification techniques developed in this work can be applied to all range of cells from small be-spoke systems that are used within mobile phones up to large scale battery modules and packs for electric vehicles and off-grid storage.